Immunohistochemical and genetic tests performed in cancer diagnosis are increasingly required in European countries, both the clinics and the reagents producing companies are interested in developing these areas. Diagnostic protocols that include immunohistochemical and genetic markers are increasingly being studied and they apply like routine diagnostic techniques both in the EU countries and in Romania.
At present cancer is the second cause of deaths worldwide after cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumours are the consequence of genetic and epigenetic alteration at the level of neoplastic cell clones. As a result of accumulation of somatic genetic mutations it is estimated that more than a half the global population could be diagnosed with a form of cancer at some point in their lifetime. The study of the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization showed that in Romania there were 78,760 new cases of cancer in 2012. This statistic has ranked Romania on the 10th place among European countries in terms of cancer patients’ number. Globocan 2008 Project of the same agency estimated that in 2008 Romania newly diagnosed cancer cases amounted 70,300 cases; cancer mortality was of 46,300 cases and the risk of dying from cancer before the age of 75 years was of 13,900 cases. 5-year prevalence of patients diagnosed with cancer would be 155,900 cases, representing 860.8 of 100,000 inhabitants. The most common cancers in both sexes are represented by lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, stomach and prostate cancer. For women the most common types of cancer are breast cancer, colorectal, cervical, lung and ovary cancer, while for men the most common types of cancer are lung, colorectal, prostate, stomach and bladder cancer. (source WHO).
The existing Ministry of Health statistics show that in Romania in 2005, 354,572 persons were registered as cancer patients. New cases of cancer, approximately 55,000 patients, represent an incidence of 252 from 100,000 inhabitants, of which about 165 patients are younger than 14 years.
Incidence and prevalence of cancer in Romania is below the European average, except for cervical cancer, which place our country on the top of the cervical cancer cases list in Europe, Romania having an incidence of 30 cases from 100,000 women. (source - Ministry of Health) In the county of Constanta there are approximately 14,000 patients diagnosed with malignant tumours. The monthly county budget allocated for the treatment of cancer patients is of 160,000 lei. The most common causes of illness are related to lung cancer, cancer of the digestive system, breast and cervical cancer. Alarming is the fact that only in Constanta County, each year are discovered about 2,400 new cases of patients with malignant neoplasms. (source - Constanta County Department of Public Health)